Friday, 3 May 2013

List of Monarchs

SURYAVAMSAM                                                               
Introduction
The term Suryavanshi refers to a person belonging to the Suryvansha dynasty. This clan was the oldest and biggest Kshatriya clan of India.
Source of the lineage 
Source of the lineage
The Puranas, particularly Vishnu Purana, Ramayana by Valmiki and the Mahabharata by Vyasa gives accounts of this dynasty. The Raghuvamsha of Kalidasa also mentions the names of some of the kings of this dynasty.

List of Monarchs 
The following is the list, in chronological order, of some of the prominent monarchs of the solar dynasty.

1. MANU or VAIVASVATA the King of all mankind and the first human being on Earth. (According to Hindu belief there are 14 Manvantaras; in each, Manu rules. Vaivasvata Manu was the seventh Manu. Manu is referred to as a Rajan (King) in theShatapatha Brahmana scripture. He had nine sons, Vena, Dhrishnu, Narishyan, Nabhaga, Ikshvaku, Karusha, Saryati, Prishadhru, Nabhagarishta and one daughter, Ila, who was married to Budha of the Lunar Dynasty). He left the kingdom to the eldest male of the next generation, Ikshvaku, who was actually the son of Manu's brother Shraaddev.

2. IKSHYAKU - the first prominent monarch of this dynasty, giving the dynasty its another name the Ikshvaku dynasty. Across the length and breadth of Greater India, numerous royal families have claimed to have belonged to the House of Ikshvaku, which was synonymous with the Solar Dynasty. Great kings like Bhagiratha and Dasaratha were among the kings in the line before Lord Ram.

3. BHAGIRATHA- Sagara's great-grandson, after strenuous penances, at last succeeded in bringing Ganges down from Heaven. When she flowed over the remains of his ancestors, their souls were redeemed, and the ocean was refilled. Ganges also bears the name "Bhagirathi", in honour of his deed. Bhagiratha was the king of Kosala, a kingdom in ancient India. He was a descendent of the great King Sagara of the Suryavamsa, or Sun Dynasty. He was one of the forefathers of Lord Rama, of the Ramayana, the epic in which Bhagiratha's tale is primarily recounted.

4. AJA - Aja is the son of king Raghu, and thus a scion of the Ikshvaku dynasty, who claimed descent from the sun godSurya. His paternal grandfather was the pious king Dileepa. King Aja's consort was the heavenly nymph Indumati; they were the parents of king Dasaratha of Ayodhya was the father of Ram. The classical Indian poet Kalidasa has elaborated upon the lives and careers of the kings Dileepa, Raghu and Aja in his work entitled Raghuvamsha (literally: "Dynasty of Raghu"). This is significant as these rulers were the immediate forbears of Rama.
5. DASHARATHA - Dasharatha was the king of Ayodhya and a descendant of the Ikshvaku dynasty (also known as Suryavansha or Raghuvaṃśa). His life story is narrated principally in the Hindu epic Ramayana. He was a descendant of Raghuand was the father of prince Rama, the principal character in the Ramayana. Dasharatha was the son of Aja and Indumati. Dasharatha had three wives namely, Kaushalya, Sumitra and Kaikeyi. Kaushalya was from the King of Kosala. Sumitra was from Kashi. Kaikeyi was from Kekeya Kingdom. 
6. RAM - He is considered the seventh Avatar of the god Vishnu. He is worshiped by every Hindu. Many Hindus include his name in either their first or last name. Rama's story before he became king of Ayodhya is recounted in the Ramayana. His wife was Sita mata. His sons were Lava ans Kush. After he ascended the throne, he performed the Ashwamedha Yajna. Bharata, his younger brother, won the country of Gandhara and settled there. 
7. LAVA and KUSHA- They were the twin sons of Rama and his wife Sita. Lava ruled south Kosala while Kusha ruled north Kosala, including Ayodhya. Kusha married "Nagkanya" "Kumuddhati", sister of Kumuda. After Kusha the following kings of the solar dynasty ruled Ayodhya:
8. GAUTAMA BUDDHA or SIDDHARTHA- Gautama Buddha was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down byoral tradition, and first committed to writing about 400 years later.

Monday, 11 February 2013

తరతరాలుగా వస్తున్న పౌరుషం, తరగని రాజసం, మంచితనం, అందం, ధైర్యం, సౌర్యం, సాహసం అనే అంశాలకు చిహ్నం మన రాజుల సూర్యవంశం.....

 సూర్యవంశ ప్రతిష్టను ఎల్లప్పుడూ కాపాడే క్షత్రియ సార్వభౌములకు సుస్వాగతం..............

Dhananjaya is a gotra found among members of the Raju community who have their origins in the Indian region now known as Andhra Pradesh. Other Raju gotras include KasyapaVasista,KaundinyaAtreyaViswamitra, and Pasupati which are the names of sages. Intermarriage between the various Raju gotras is common.[citation needed]


SURNAMES OF KSHATRIYAS :
 
The surnames of Andhra Kshatriyas were created or formed during the 12th, 13th and 14th Centuries (AD). Prior to that, there were only Gotras (clans) but no surnames. Marriage alliances were being made between persons of different Gotras but not with persons of the same Gotras. At the time of formation of surnames, the villages where persons were residing generally became their surnames.
Surnames were based on village names,based on Chivalry names, based on nature and based on other ways. For some families the names of their famous and prominent ancestors became their surnames. 

For example - Gadi Raju, Sayyapa Raju, Bhupathi Raju, Byrraju, Ganapathi Raju, Gokaraju, Kunappa Raju, Nallappa Raju, Rudra Raju, Uddaraju, Yarakaraju (Yarakaraju/Yerukaraju, Yeruka meansWell Known in telugu) etc. The surname based on nature - Sardhaka namam (One who is rightous) - is Sagi.
Gotra (clan), Vamsam means heredity. 


The Vamsams are of two types:
Janma Vamsam (based on Birth)
Vidya Vamsam (based on Education)
Those Kshatriyas who were educated under certain Sages (Rishis) became their Vamsiyas. They belong to the respective Vidya Vamsams.
Sage Apastamba wrote a book named Apastamba Sutramulu incorporating the traditions of persons wearing the sacred thread (Dvija). All the traditions and ceremonies of Andhra Kshatriyas are based on these sutras.

The Andhra Kshatriyas belonging to the five Gotras:
 
1.
PASUPATI 
2. KASHYAPA
3. VASISHTA
4. DHANUNJAYA
5. KAUNDINYA

Pasupati is a branch of Kashyapa
Sage Kaundinya (Kundin) was the son of Vasishtha and nephew of Agastya. 
Dhanunjaya is a branch of Vishwamitra.
Most surnames in Andhra Pradesh come from the family's town of origin so some of the surnames are found in other Andhra communities. Some of the Kshatriya names are actually the same but due to regional pronunciation differences they are spelt differently.



PASUPATI KASHYAPA  VASISHTA  DHANUNJAYA KAUNDINYA




Alugunuru Balaraju  Adduri            Addala Addepalli 
Ayyapuraju Bellamkonda         Alluri  Byrraju Ayanampudi  
Anantharaju Chiruvella              Angaraju  Bhupathiraju Chitraju        
Anjiraju Eedarapalli        Balaraju  Champati Dintakurthi    
Balaraju Gorinta              Bejawada  Chekuri  (Sekuri) Ede              
Bayalraju Gobburi            Bhetalam  Chintalapati Inampudi       
Betharaju Kanumuri          Byrraju  Dandu  Jampana (Varnata)   
Bogaraju Kakkera             Buddharaju  Dantuluri (Thantaluri) Kalidindi         
Buttamraju Katari                 Chamarthi  Dasaraju Kundaraju     
Chamarthi Kadimella         Dhenuvakonda  Datla (Thatla) Mudunuri       
Chejerila Lakamraju         Dendukuri  Gadiraju Muthundi (Mudundi)   
Chennapaya Mandapati        Erraguntala  Gandraju Saripalli        
Chennamraju Mungara        Gadiraju  Gokaraju Vemulavada  
Chevooru Namburi         Ganapathiraju  Gottumukkala Vemulamanda      
Chinnanagannagari Pathapati           Godavarthi  Guntimadugu Yamanamanda             
Chinnanarasiahgari Saidu                Gurjala  Gunturi
Chokkaraju Sayyaparaju    Gundraju  Jampana (Kota)
Cibyala Sirivella            Immadiraju (Immalaraju)  Kallepalli
Daasanapu Solaraju           Indukuri (Indukoori)  Kammela
Dakshiraju Solanki             Isukapalli  Kankipati
Dalavayi Uppalapati       Kakarlapudi  Kanteti
Gadi
Kutcherlapati  Kasi                           
Gouripuram
Manthena (Manthana) Kopperla                                     
Govindarajulu
Mulagapati  Kokkerlapati                                
Gundlapalli
Muppalla  Konduri                      
Hasthi
Mungapati  Koppella             
Inkula
Nadimpalli  Kothapalli      
Jagadaabhi
Nagaraju  Kunaparaju          
Kanchiraju
Pusapati (Poosapadi)  Kamparaju 
Katri
Pericherla (Pericholi)  Nallaparaju
Kocherla
Pinnamaraju  Pakalapati (Pagalapati)     
Konduru
Potturi  Patsamatla (Patchamatla)  
Lingaraju
Rajasagi  Penumatsa (Penumathsa)  
Medidaraju
Sagi  Penmatsa, Penmetsa   
Nandyala
Sakhineti  Pusampudi 
Nimmaraju
Sagiraju  Rudraraju 
Padmaraju
Samantapudi  Sagiraju     
Patarapalli
Siravuri Sujjuri    
Peddiraju
Vadapalli  Thotakura 
Penugonda
Vatsavai (Vathsvaya)  Thirumalaraju 
Posaladeevi
Valivarthi  Uddaraju/Vuddharaju  
Raghava
Vegesana (Vegesina)  Vadlamudi  
Rayalacheruvu
Vetikuri  Vanapala  
Reddicherla
Penmatsa  Vegiraju 
Sangaraju
Pakalapati  Vempalli  
Solaraju
Siruvuri (Siroovuri)  Vetukuri    
Tipparaju

Yallamraju  
Ummalaraju

Nandimandalam  
Valavarthi

Yarakaraju    
Vanipanta

Aarveti    
Vankeraju

Saluva    
Veligandla



Venkataraju



Yadavalli



Yellatooru



Yerramraju




Kaushika Gotra: Kausika was one of the names of Visvamitra.
Dalavai  

Siddiraju 
Pocharaju 

Simhadri
casthuri 

Timmaraju
Varadaraju

People belonging to Kaushika (Kaushik/Kousika/Kousikasa/Koushika/Kausika)
Gotra take Rajarishi Kausikaas their root.
11 Royal clans of 96 clan of Marathas belong to Kaushik gotra including the illustrious house of Shivaji and Rashtrakutas.
2 more clans belong to theVishvamitra gotra.




Vishnukundina Dynasty 
Vishnukundinas, one of the ancient clans that ruled in Andhra Pradesh from 5th to 7th centuries. It is believed that Vishnukundina Madhava Varma along with members of the other three gotras conquered the Salankayanas and established their rule. Some of the feudal kingoms of this time were the Kotas, Chagis, and Paricchedi. The Paricchedis Kings were ancestors of the Pusapati royal family who built Bezawada (Modern Vijayawada) off the river Krishna by 626 AD and another capital in Kollipaka establishing themselves for nine centuries there. They are considered to be descendants of one of the earliest Maharana's of Mewar, who migrated to south during 7th century. They were staunch patrons of Hindu Dharma in contrast to the Chalukyas, who initially were patrons of Jainism. The family name was changed to Pusapati after moving to the coastal region. The name is derived from the Sanskrit Pushavat (Pushan), meaning of the sun, to highlight their Suryavanshi lineage. They founded the city of Vizianagaram, named after Vijay Rama Raju. They obtained the title of Gajapathi, after the battle of Nandapur, in the northern circars in the 16th century. The Raju families of Rajapalayam are descendents of migrated families led by the brother of the Vizianagaram Maharaja, Pusapati Chinna Raju. 
Eastern Chalukyas 
Chalukyas were a royal dynasty that succeeded the Vishnukundinas and ruled large parts of southern and central India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. Chalukyas originated from Karnataka, were led into Andhra by Pulakesi II, who appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as his Viceroy. On death of Pulakesi II, Kubja Vishnuvardhana declared himself king of the Eastern deccan and his dynasty came to be known as the Eastern Chalukyas (Vengi Chalukyas). The Eastern Chalukyas ruled from Vengi. The collateral branches of Eastern Chalukyas ruled over small principalities like Elamanchili, Pithapuram and Mudigonda. The Eastern Chalukyas, who were Chandravanshi Kshatriyas, were closely connected by marriage ties with other Kshatriya families in Andhra (Kalachuris, Chagis, Parichedas and Kota Vamsas). The Eastern Chalukyas through marital alliances merged into the Cholas and ruled from 1076 C.E to 1019 C.E as Chalukya-Cholas The other important Kshatriya dynasties during this period were Perrichedi, Kota Vamsa, Chagi and Haiheyas. Kota Vamsa (Dharanikota- Fort Dynasty) 


Kota Vamsa: 
The Kota kings, Kshatriyas of Dhanunjya gotra ruled from Dharanikota during the 11th and 12th century AD. Last King of this dynasty was Kota Betaraja. The Jampana, Datla, Dandu, Dantuluri, Uppalapati, Pakalapati and Nallaparaju royal families of Dhanunjaya Gotra, who were Zamindars of Ramachandrapuram, Mogalthur, Kotapalli, Ghandavaram, Kuppili, Moida and Mutta Talaga Chiralaall claim descent from this ancient dynasty. 
Chagi:
The Chagis have been around since the Chalukyas at least and possibly the 6th or 7th century. They were mentioned as subordinate Chiefs of the Chalukyas and Kakatiyas. Bezawada inscription mentions in honor of Tulukam Velnadu Sagi Doraya Raju dated 1215 A.D. In 1246 inscriptions describe the reign of Chagi Manma Raju and in 1230 grants by Chagi Pota Raju. An inscription in Gudimetla on a fort dated around 1268 A.D. during the reign of Kakatiya Rudrama Devi states that Sagi Pota Raju was her commander-in-chief. Sagi Gannama was a governor under Vira Pratapa Purushottama Gajapati (AD 1462-1496). He built a hill fort in Vinukonda. The Kota Uratla and Thangedu royal families are descendents of the Chagis, with their name changing over time to Sagi. The founder of Peddapuram line of kings was Sagi Potha Raju who participated in the battle of Palnadu in 1178-1182. The family attained the title of Jagapati in the 16th century and changed their surname to Vatsavayi in honor of a fort during the times of Vatsavayi Timma Raju (1555-1607). 

Chedi-Kalachuri-Kona Chodas: 
The Matsyas, Chedis, Haihayas and Kalachuris seem to share a common mythylogical and historical background with possible ancestry links to ancient Matsya Desa. The Chedis (A.K.A. Haihaya, Kalachuri) eventually became the Chodarajus of Kona. Historians such as Dr. P.B. Desai are emphatic about the central Indian origin of the Karnataka Kalachuris who are also referred to as Katachuris (shape of a sharp knife), Kalanjara-pura-vara-dhis-vara (Lord of Kalanjara) and Haihaya (Heheya). Several Kalachuri kings were related to Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas by matrimonial alliances and had ruled from places like Tripuri, Gorakhpur, Ratnapur, Rajpur. By the time they are mentioned in the Telugu epic Battle of Palnadu, they are referred to as the Haihaya family of the Kona region (Amalapuram and Razole of the present East Godavari District), and the Haihaya family of Palanadu, feudatories of the Chalukyas. The Kona Chiefs later took the title of Chodas, loyal governors for the newly formed Chola-Chalukya empire. They were Chandravanshi Kshatriyas of Kashyapa gotra. Kalachuris, Chalukya, Chagis and Kota Vamsa clans were important participants in the battle of Palnadu. It was a battle between two factions of the Kalachuris (Haihaya). 


Kakatiya Period 
In Kakatiya period there were inscriptions mentioning about Kshatriyas in the Kakatiya army. There were 2000 Kshatriyas who lived in the Kakatiya capital. There were also few Kshatriya kingdoms in Andhra during Kakatiya period. There are 9 inscriptions mentioning the Sagi rulers, 6 inscriptions mentioning Pericheda Bhimaraju ruling in the Guntur region. The Chagis, Kota Kings and Paricchedis continued to hold onto their regions as subordinate rulers of Kakatiyas. the Chodarajus were ruling in Narasaraopeta, the Chagis (Sagis) were described as Kshatriyas ruling with Gudimetla as their capital and a Rudraraju was the General of Nathavadi region allied to the Kakatiyas. Kakatiya King Ganapatideva's sister Melambika and his two daughters were given in marriage to the three Kshatriya family clans Chagis, Chalukyas and Kotas respectively. After this marital alliance with the three Kshatriya family clans, Kakatiyas started claiming Kshatriya status as evidenced by an inscription found in Guntur District. Ganapati Deva's sister Melambika was married to the second son of Chagi Buddaraju, who was ruling Natavadi region. Ganapatideva's first daughter Rudramadevi was married to Veerabhadra, Eastern Chalukyan prince of Nidadavolu and his second daughter Ganapamba was married to Kota Betaraja. Kakatiya King Ganapati Deva had no sons so he made his daughter Rudramadevi as his legitimate heir. As Rudramadevi was married to an Eastern Chalukyan prince of Kshatriya clan, Kakatiya rulers from Rani Rudramadevi regime used to mention themselves as Kshatriyas of Kashyapa gotra as seen in Guntur inscriptions. Kakatiya King Pratap Rudra's brother, Annam Deo, who left Warangal and established his kingdom at Bastar in Chhattisgarh around the late 14th century also mentioned Kakatiyas as Kshatriyas. 


Gajapatis of Kalinga/Orissa 
The Suryavanshi Gajapatis of Orissa, on the height of their power in the 15th century, ruled over a kingdom extending from the Ganges river in the north to the Kaveri in the south under Gajapati Kapilendra Deva. But by the early 16th century, the Gajapatis lost great portions of their southern dominion to Vijayanagar and Golconda. During the Gajapathi reign an inscription mentions a Bhupathiraju Vallabha Raju Mahapatra in Chodavaram. It was common for the Zamindari families of the border region of Orissa and Andhra to have alliances. Early on, they actually sided with the Gajapatis against the Vijayanagar Empire. There was a notable exception with inscriptional confirmation of two Kshatriya generals fighting on the side of Krishna Deva Raya. Of the modern clans, the Vyricharla royals of Kurupam and the Satrucharla clan of Salur have more in common with the Orissa royals, who claim descent from the Gajapati and Ganga Dynasties, than they do with the Godavari clans. The Rajas of Kurupam are related through marriage to Jeypore Royal family, Bhanj dynasty of Daspalla princely state, Parmar dynasty of Gangpur princely state of Orissa and Kacchawa dynasty of Talcher princely state of Orissa founded in the 12th century. 

Vijayanagara Period 
Out of the four clans that ruled the Vijayanagara empire, two clans Saluva Dynasty and Aravidu Dynasty claimed to be of the Kshatriya Varna. Raja Achutya Deva Raya, Zamindar of Anegundi and head of the Hindu Kshatriya Community mentioned that they are of the Kshatriya Raju caste and marry among Telugu speaking Kshatriya Rajus settled in Hampi area. Raju families such as the Chodarajus, Tirumalarajus, Madirajus, Nandyalas, Gobburis, Saluvas (Bommarajus) of Karvetinagar, the Rajas of Owk and Matla Chiefs were all relatives of the Aravidu dynasty. The founding brothers of the Aravidu dynasty were the sons-in-law of Krishna Deva Raya of the Tuluva Dynasty and were also related previously through marriage with the Saluva Dynasty. Gobburi Narasaraju was the nephew of Aliya Ramaraju and After the death of King Venkatapathi Raju, from 1614 to 1616 there was a great war of succession. Amongst the claimants to the throne was Gobburi Jaga Deva Raju, the brother-in-law of the emperor and also a relative of the Raja of Karvetinagar, Saluva Makaraju. The Chodaraju's gotra was given as Kasyapa and the Nandyala's gotra was given as Atreya and were described as belonging to Chandravanshi, both were related through marriage and both were appointed Mahamandaleswars during the start of the 16th century. The Madiraju's gotra was given as Kasyapa and Suryavanshi and related to the Thirumalarajus, both appointed Mahamandeleswars of Guntur area and happened to be the grandchildren of Aravidu Rama Raya. Madhava Varma Bejawada was mentioned in 1509 AD as of the Vasishtha gotra and Suryavansi. Krishna Deva Raya defeated among others Rachi Raju Pusapati, Srinatha Raju and Lakshmipati Raju on his way to defeating Pratapa Rudra Gajapati Raju of the Gajapathi Dynasty. He immediately reinstated these rulers as his vassals and married the daughter of Pratapa Rudra as a truce offering. All this occurred between 1514-1517 AD. Ganapathirajus were described as of the Suryavanshi and Kasyapa gotra and were Mahamandaleswars in 1555 AD. 

Karvetinagar: 

The current Bommaraju family of Karvetinagar are of Kshatriya Raju caste and trace their origins back to an ancestor who migrated from the Pithapuram area of the Godavari Delta about the 8th or 9th century. One ancestor obtained the favor of the Eastern Chalukya King, Vimala Aditya and Saluva Narasa was appointed the Chief of the region around Tirupati, where he founded a town called Narasapuram. The family later became feudatories of Vijayanagar, and had marriage alliances with the Saluva and loyalties to the Aravidu dynasties over the next two hundred years. Around the 16th century the family changed their name to the current Bommaraju, retaining Saluva as a title. 

Nizam/Colonial Period 
The Sultans, Nizams and British all employed Rajus as the governors of estates with the responsibility of collecting taxes. In 1857 the British broke up the estates and realigned the bigger brigands into Princely states and the lesser ones as Zamindars or Jagirdars. These Zamindars were abolished after the formation of the Indian Union in 1947. 


Modern community 
After the Independence of India, Zamindari was abolished. During this time many Raju Zamindars donated their property and land liberally for the upliftment of poor and Education. Vizianagaram is the oldest and largest Hindu Princely State of Andhra Pradesh (Samsthanam). Maharaja PVG Raju donated his Royal State to Republic of India. He also donated enormous wealth, Khazana, Land, Gold, Diamonds, Properties, Palaces to Korukonda Sainik school, Andhra University, Mansas Trust and to poor and needy for schools, colleges and hospitals. Rajus of Andhra are designated as forward caste. Most of Rajus are doing well in Education, Information Technology and other fields. Despite sizeable population of Rajus being economically backward, Andhra Kshatriya Rajus never asked for reservation. 


Andhra Kshatriya Customs: 
Some traditional ceremonies that are performed by the Kshatriya community of Andhra Pradesh known as Rajus are

Punya-kavachanam

Things Required
1. Flowers
2. Betel leaf, haldi, kumkum
3. Blouse pieces

On the eleventh day after birth there are purification rituals to cleanse away the pollution (Janama Sutaka) caused by childbirth. The mother and the child, who are till then secluded from the family, re-enter the household. A priest performs a pooja, recites the appropriate mantras and sprinkles sacred water all over the house, thereby purifying it. 

Naam-karan/Barasala
 
Things Required
1. Rice
2. Tray
3. Gold ring
On the eleventh day after birth, the child is given a name. It is during this ceremony that for the first time relatives and close friends see the child. It is a small ceremony where invitees sing songs and celebrate the arrival of the child. The name is written on rice spread on the floor or on a tray. The child's maternal uncle takes a golden ring and keeps it on the child's mouth. The mother and both the grandmothers give gold to the child (either a chain or a bangle)


Uyyalalo-veyadam/(Cradle-Ceremony) 


Things Required
1. Flowers
2. New silk cloth
3. Cradle
An auspicious time is chosen on the evening of the 21st day after childbirth. Usually a new silk cloth is put in the cradle and it is decorated with flowers. At the auspicious time, the mother or the paternal grandmother places the child in the cradle. This is known as Uyyalalo Veyadam.

Kesa Khandan

The Head-shaving (Tonsure) and ear piercing ceremony, also known as the Mundan ceremony. These ceremonies are not celebrated on a grand scale and are usually small events within the family. Kesakhandan is performed at a temple along with ear piercing for the female child. 

Anna-prasanam
Things Required
1. Rice and milk
2. Silver bowl
3. A book
4. A gold chain
5. A pen
6. A knife
7. A small wooden table
The initiation of the child to solid food is known as Annaprasan. Food is first offered to God. Then the paternal grandmother mixes rice and milk in a silver bowl and feeds the child. Then a book, gold chain, pen and a knife are placed on a small wooden table. The child is then left free 15 yards (14 m) away from the table. As the child moves towards the table, he or she is believed to become associated with whichever of the four articles that he or she touches.
The qualities attributed to the four articles are:
1. Pen - Academician, Writer, Scholar
2. Book - Studious
3. Knife - Boldness
4. Gold - Wealth and Prosperity.


Vidyarambham/start of education
Things Required
Usual pooja samagri such as kumkum, rice, water, flowers and fruits, incense etc The initiation of a child into the formal learning process is usually done between the 3rd and the 5th year of the child. A priest is asked to preside over the ceremonies. The child participates in the Saraswati pooja as the priest recites the mantras. The child is then made to write the first two alphabets and is guided by the father in doing this. Children of the same age group and the child's friends are invited for lunch on this occasion. Sometimes the teacher of the school where the child would be educated is also invited and gifts are given. The children are gifted with slates and chalk, and shloka and poetry books 

Upanayanam
Things Required 
1. In the past Mundan or shaving the head was essential before this sanskar. Today many just get a hair cut before the sanskar.
2. Mekhla - Thread to tie around the waist.
3. Kopin - Loincloth about six inches wide and one and a half feet long.
4. Dandi - Wooden stick.
5. Thread for Yagyopaveet, which should be dyed yellow.
6. New clothes to be worn by the persons performing the ritual.
7. The Veda, which signifies knowledge. If the Veda is not available, any other holy book should be wrapped up in a cloth and should be kept on a raised pedestal.
8. Three mounds of rice grains to be kept on this pedestal for worshipping Gayatri, Saraswati and Savitri.
Upanayanam or the sacred thread ceremony is performed for the male child at the age of seven years (if this is not possible then in any odd year). This is when the boy is initiated into the Gayatri Mantra. The upnayanam ceremony in modern practice is performed just before marriage. Traditionally it was a long ceremony with elaborate rituals:
It is one of the most important rituals in a Hindu's life.